Literacy skills


Most dyslexics do not have speech problems.

However two major difficulties are characteristic:

1. Word finding. To recall words that are used less can be difficulty. Even if your vocabulary is not poor it can happen. The words and concepts are part of a system that is not clear cut and well accessible enough for the dyslexic mind.

If you are diyslexic you are more prone to mix up foreign expressions that are similar in both their senses and their pronunciation and spelling.

For example the adjectives robust and rustic. The image: a coarse, not so elaborate and refined, peasant-like appearance, and the two words are mixed in this image.


2. Following long verbal sequencies. It can be difficult to follow longer unbroken explanations, instructions and lectures. This causes further difficulties in both learning and at work.

Many think that the dyslexic individual fails to understand the instruction, the lecture etc. because of indolence, forgetfulness, heedlessness or poor intellectual abilities. This, however, is not so. There is no problem with the intellect and mostly you do try to pay attention. The problem is related to the weakness of sequential processing.

As in reading, where you are able to process the well-structured and well arranged material with certainty, similarly, you can grasp well structured speech units the best.



Even a dyslexic person can learn to read. Moreover, if taught using methods that take your characteristics into consideration, you can become positively good reader.

By adulthood, it is usually not reading out words that causes the problems, but even those who are good readers can be characterized by:

  • reading more slowly than the average,

  • skipping lines,

  • reading another word, often a synonym or an otherwise similar word,

  • reading longer parts and forgetting what they have read,

  • making more mistakes when having to read out loud.

The most typical and most severely hindering problem is text comprehension difficulties.

Even if you can read fluently, it is in vain if you cannot in the meantime form ideas from the linguistic material.

The dyslexic brain tends to have difficulties in the creation a whole from the information. It is mainly deficits in sequential information processing and, thereby, weaknesses in forming idea and in forming accurate images from words.

Written material that is easy to see through, structured and supplied with illustrations is easier to process. This format is helpful for everyone, but it is the most beneficial for the dyslexic brain.


Dyslexia can be accompanied by dysgraphia, but does not necessarily cause writing disorder in form.

The writing of dyslexics is usually

  • disorganized and difficult to read, but acceptable.

When struggling with more severe forms of writing problems, it is definitely beneficial to use a word processor, but technical tools are helpful for everyone in writing.


One of the most common residual signs of dyslexia in adulthood is poor spelling.

This problem arises

  • owing to sound/letter processing problems

  • and weaknesses in dealing with sequences, relations and details.

Even very erudite and well-read dyslexics can have spelling problems. Examples from the past:

  • Anatole France failed twice at school leaving examination because of his poor spelling.

  • William Butler Yeats was an excellent poet, but his editors suffered a lot from the spelling mistakes in his poems.

Technical tools help a lot to be good in spelling while you write.


Even if you are dyslexic you may count very well. Usually you use compensation.

Mostly you are able to develop methods that are appropriate for your abilities. However,you can have problem at counting because of the

  • poor serial abilities,

  • and malfunctioning of handling relations and details of the elements.

People with dyslexia face difficulties especially in the area of basic operations. It is multiplication and division that present a problem the most often.

This is a kind of problem, too, which does not inhibit outstanding achievement. Several renowned natural scientist, and even mathematician have faced this kind of problem.

  • Benoit Mandelbrot a researcher of IBM and developer of fractal geometry did not know his multiplication tables.
  • Benjamin Franklin was a good reader, but had difficulties with counting.
  • Werner von Braun, the father of the rocket, failed in algebra.

More and more even people without specific learning difficulties are not able to calculate without a calculator.

It is easy and practical to use a calculator. Nevertheless it is a good training of your mind to use the brain power for maths calculation.



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